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Exemplification Essay Transition Words

Transitional Words and Phrases

 

Transitional words and phrases can create powerful links between ideas in your paper and can help your reader understand the logic of your paper.

However, these words all have different meanings, nuances, and connotations.

Before using a particular transitional word in your paper, be sure you understand its meaning and usage completely and be sure that it's the right match for the logic in your paper.

Addition

  • furthermore
  • moreover
  • too
  • also
  • in the second place
  • again
  • in addition
  • even more
  • next
  • further
  • last, lastly
  • finally
  • besides
  • and, or, nor
  • first
  • second, secondly, etc.

Time

  • while
  • immediately
  • never
  • after
  • later, earlier
  • always
  • when
  • soon
  • whenever
  • meanwhile
  • sometimes
  • in the meantime
  • during
  • afterwards
  • now, until now
  • next
  • following
  • once
  • then
  • at length
  • simultaneously
  • so far
  • this time
  • subsequently

Place

  • here
  • there
  • nearby
  • beyond
  • wherever
  • opposite to
  • adjacent to
  • neighboring on
  • above, below

Exemplification or Illustration

  • to illustrate
  • to demonstrate
  • specifically
  • for instance
  • as an illustration
  • e.g., (for example)
  • for example

Comparison

  • in the same way
  • by the same token
  • similarly
  • in like manner
  • likewise
  • in similar fashion

Contrast

  • yet
  • and yet
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • after all
  • but
  • however
  • though
  • otherwise
  • on the contrary
  • in contrast
  • notwithstanding
  • on the other hand
  • at the same time

Clarification

  • that is to say
  • in other words
  • to explain
  • i.e., (that is)
  • to clarify
  • to rephrase it
  • to put it another way

Cause

  • because
  • since
  • on account of
  • for that reason

Effect

  • therefore
  • consequently
  • accordingly
  • thus
  • hence
  • as a result

Purpose

  • in order that
  • so that
  • to that end, to this end
  • for this purpose

Qualification

  • almost
  • nearly
  • probably
  • never
  • always
  • frequently
  • perhaps
  • maybe
  • although

Intensification

  • indeed
  • to repeat
  • by all means
  • of course
  • doubtedly
  • certainly
  • without doubt
  • yes, no
  • undoubtedly
  • in fact
  • surely
  • in fact

Concession

  • to be sure
  • granted
  • of course, it is true

Summary

  • to summarize
  • in sum
  • in brief
  • to sum up
  • in short
  • in summary

Conclusion

  • in conclusion
  • to conclude
  • finally

Demonstratives acting as transitions

Pronouns serving as links to clearly refer to a specific word or phrase

  • his
  • its
  • theirs
  • it
  • their
  • your
  • her
  • they
  • our

Patterns of Organization
College Readiness Game-Based Reading

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this lesson you will be able to:

  • Identify relationships between and/or within sentences
  • Determine the primary and secondary patterns of organization for a paragraph and multi-paragraph selection
  • Identify the transition words that are associated with each pattern

 

Introduction

 

A thought or organizational pattern is established by using transitions, or signal words, to show the logical relationship between ideas within a sentence, between sentences, in a paragraph or in a passage.

The chart below outlines some of the commonly used patterns and signal words. Please note that some of the signal words are used in more than one pattern. When this is the case, the reader must pay close attention to the relationship between the main idea and details of the passage.

 

Patterns of Organization

Purpose

Transitions/Signal Words

Example

Listing

 

Lists a series or set of reasons, details or points. The order of the details does NOT matter.

 

also, and, final, for one thing, furthermore, in addition, next, second

 

Exercising has many physical health benefits including toned muscles. It also has mental health benefits.

 

Time Order:

Series of Events, narration, stages, steps, directions

 

Shows a chain of events. The order is important.

after, afterward, first, last, next previously, soon, ultimately, while

After the class I plan on getting my work completed.

Classification

 

Used to sort ideas into smaller groups or ideas. Traits of each group are described.

another group, categories, characteristics, one type, second kind, traits

 

Honey bees can be grouped into three castes: queens, drones, sterile female workers.

 

Space Order

(Spatial Order)

 

Allows authors to describe a person, place, or things based on its location or the way it is arranged in space

above, across, adjacent, behind, beside, center, close to, front, left, middle, outside, right there, under, within

 

Adjacent to my classroom is the President's office.

 

Cause and Effect

 

A cause states why something happens. An effect states a result or outcome.

accordingly, as a result, because of, consequently, since, so, result in, therefore, thus

 

Since I have been eating healthy and exercising regularly, I have lost 12 pounds

 

Contrast

 

Points out the ways two or more ideas are different.

 

Although, as opposed to, conversely, different from,   even though, however, nevertheless, on the one hand, on the other hand, rather than, yet, while

 

Although I ate a four course meal, I am still hungry.

Definition

 

The definition explains the meaning of new, difficult or specialized vocabulary. Examples are then given to show how the word is used

 

As all illustration, for example, for instance, once, such as, to illustrate

Personification is when you assign the qualities of a person to something that isn't human, or in some cases, to something that isn't even alive. For example, The wind howled its mighty objection

 

Generalization and Example

 

The author makes a general statement and then offers examples for clarification.

 

As all illustration, for example, for instance, once, such as, to illustrate

 

Reality television has taken over the nation. For example, Here Comes Honey Boo Boo is watched by millions of viewers each week.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Instructional Video

 

 

Transitions and Thought Patterns

Transitions are words and phrases that signal thought patterns by showing the logical relationships both within a sentence and between sentences.

  • Some transitions word and phrases have similar meanings; for example, also, too, furthermore
  • Sometimes a single word can serve as two different types of transitions, depending on how it is used: since can signal time order or a cause

A thought pattern is established by using transitions to show the logical relationship between ideas in a paragraph or passage.

Not only do transitions reveal the relationships among ideas within a sentence, they also show the relationship of ideas between sentences. For example, Aerobic activity strengthens the heart and lungs. It also builds and tones muscles.

  • A paragraph is made up of a group of ideas.
  • Major details support the main idea and minor details support the major details.
  • Transitions make the relationship between these three levels of ideas clear, smooth, and easy to follow.

Thought patterns (or patterns of organization) are signaled using transitions to show the logical relationship between the ideas in a paragraph, passage, or textbook chapter.

The time order thought pattern generally shows a chain of events. The actions or events are listed in the order in which they occur. This is called chronological order.

  • Narrative: An author uses narration to describe a chain of points such as a significant event in history or a story.
  • Process: Process is used to give directions to a task in order, like in steps, stages, or directions.

Transition Used in the Time Order Patters for Events or Stages

after

afterward

as

before

currently

during

eventually

finally

first

immediately

last

later

meanwhile

next

now

often

previously

second

since

soon

then

ultimately

until

when

 

Process: Steps, Stages, or Direction

The process thought pattern for steps, stages, or directions shows actions that can be repeated at any time with similar results. This pattern is used to provide steps or give directions for completing a task. Transitions used in the time order patters for process - see below.

after

afterward

as

before

during

eventually

finally

last

later

meanwhile

next

now

previously

second

since

soon

often

then

while

first

 

The Space Order Pattern

The space order patterns allows authors to describe a person, place or thing based on its location or the way it is arranged in space. This is also known as spatial order. A writer uses descriptive details to help readers create a mental picture of the subject being described. An author may choose to describe an object from top to bottom, from bottom to top, right to left, left to right, near to far, etc.

Space Order: Descriptive Details

Describe detail 1 > Descriptive detail 2 > Descriptive detail 3

Transition words of space order signal that the details follow a logical order based on two elements:

1. How the object, place, or person is arranged in space, and

2. The starting point from which the author chooses to begin the description.

 

Transition Words Used in Space Order Pattern

above

across

adjacent

around

at the bottom

at the side

at the top

within

back

backup

behind

below

beneath

beside

beyond

center

close to

down

far away

farther

front

here

inside

left

nearby

next to

outside

right

The Listing Pattern

Often authors want to present an orderly series or set of reasons, details, or points, These details are listed in an order that the author has chosen. Changing the order of the details does not change their meaning. Transitons of addition, such as, and, also, furthermore, are generally used to indicate a listing pattern.

Listing Pattern

Idea 1

Idea 2

Idea 3

Transitions of addition signal that the writer is adding to an earlier thought. the writer presents an idea and then adds other ideas to deepen or clarify the first idea.

also

and

another

besides

final

finally

first

for one thing

furthermore

in addition

last

last of all

moreover

next

one

second

 

The Classification Pattern

Authors use the classification pattern to sort ideas into smaller groups and describe the trains of each group.

  • Each smaller group, called a subgroup, is based on shared traits of characteristics
  • The author lists each subgroup and describes its traits.

Transitions of addition are used since groups and subgroups are listed in this thought pattern.

Examples of classification signal words are:

  • another (group, kind, type)
  • first (group, category, kind, type)
  • characteristics
  • second (group, class, kind, types)

The Comparison and Contrast Pattern

Comparison points out the ways in which two or more ideas are alike.

a kind of

alike

as

as well as

comparable

equally

in a similar fashion

 

in character with

in like manner

in the same way

just as

like

likewise

matching

near to

resemble

same

similar

similarity

similarly

 

 

 

 

Contrast

Contrast points out the ways in which two or more ideas are different

Words and Phases of Contrast

although

counter to

differently

instead

than

despite

nevertheless

to the contrary

differ

as opposed to

however

unlike

difference

yet

while

conversely

in compatible with

still

 

 

 

Contrast Pattern

Idea 1

 

Idea 2

Idea 1

differs from

Idea 2

Idea 1

differs from

Idea 2

Idea 1

differs from

Idea 2

For example: Physical development differs between girls and boys.

Comparison and Contrast

A is like B, but A differs from B.

Comparison: A is like B

Contrast: A is different from B

 

Cause and Effect

Sometimes an author talks about why something happened or what results came from an event.

  • A cause states why something happens; an effect states a result or outcome

Cause and Effect Words

accordingly

as a result

because

thus

because of

consequently

due to

if....then

leads to

on account of

so results in

since

thereby

therefore

 

 

 

Generalization and Example Pattern

In the generalization-and-example thought pattern, the author makes a general statement and then offers an example or a series of examples to clarify the generalization.

The Generalization-and-Example Pattern Statement of a general idea

Example

Example

Words and Phrases that Introduce Examples

an illustration

for example

for instance

including

once

such as

to illustrate

typically

 


Textbooks are full of new words and special terms. Even if the word is common, it can take on a special meaning in a specific course. To help students understand the ideas, authors often include a definition of the new or special term. Often times, the author will then give examples.

The Definition pattern
Term and definition

Example

Example

Examples may come before of after the new term is introduced. Some words and phrases the introduce examples are: an illustration, for example, for instance, including, once, such as, to illustrate and typically.

 

Instructional Video

 

 Learning Organizational Patterns through movie trailers!!, Published on July 13, 2013

 Retrieved by: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sK-Xvo9wx6E

 

 

Self-Check

Directions: Read the selection to determine the patterns of organization and the signals used to indicate the pattern.

1Homogeneous grouping refers to grouping students of similar ability levels. 2Some educators, parents, and students think homogeneous grouping, separating faster learners from slower learners, is advantageous and more effective for all students. 3However, some researchers believe that grouping young people by abilities stereotypes them at an early age. 4Some teachers tend to "teach down" to those in the "lower" groups, and the self-fulfilling prophecy sets itself into motion. 5Students in the lower groups soon come to believe that they cannot achieve; their teachers' expectations of them become fulfilled, indeed. 6Also, teachers of "lower" groups may not use innovative and creative methods; they may tend to baby-sit those in their care with dull and repetitive worksheets. 7In addition, homogeneous grouping may be elitist: those students who have economic and cultural advantages may be placed in more advanced groups.

 

 Question 1

 

 Question 2.

 

 Question 3

 

Read the selection to determine the patterns of organization and the signals used to indicate the pattern.

1Have you ever reflected on your high school education? 2The education you received was actually shaped by the beliefs of your teachers, administrators, and community. 3Some schools organize their curriculum or course offerings around the subjects they believe all students should master. 4The subject-centered curricula can be traced to ancient Greece and Rome where the educational focus was on grammar, rhetoric, mathematics, and music. 5Schools having a subject-centered focus treat each of these areas as a body of knowledge to be transmitted to students. 6On the other hand, some schools organize their courses based on a student-centered philosophy. 7These schools focus first on the needs and interests of the students. 8The student-centered curricula can be traced to the ideas of Jacques Rousseau, who encouraged self-expression and creativity. 9Well-known educator John Dewey also advocated a student-centered curriculum, but one balanced with strong subject matter content and areas of interest.

 

 Question 1

 

 Question 2

 

Read the selection to determine the patterns of organization and the signals used to indicate the pattern.

1At the end of the twentieth century, everyone in America seems to be stressed. We become stressed in response to some stimulus that causes us discomfort. The stimuli, or prompts, can vary. Stress may be prompted by monthly bills that exceed monthly incomes. Stress may be prompted by the pressure of trying to juggle work and college courses at the same time. In addition, stress may be prompted by long, bumper-to-bumper commutes every day. Whatever the cause, we feel pain, fear, or anxiety; our lives seem out of balance.

2Stress not only affects us emotionally, it also impacts our physical health. Stressors, those unpleasant prompts or experiences, actually trigger a biological response in our bodies. Our hearts beat wildly after we hit the brakes on our car to avoid a rear-end collision. Actually, the stress response in a near-collision may be positive; it may force us to respond quickly to danger. Our bodies may react negatively, however, if the stress is continuous for long periods of time. One effect of prolonged and intense stress may be the weakening of our immune response system. We may be much more susceptible to viruses and colds if we are extremely stressed. Also, those of us who are very stressed may be more prone to heart attacks and strokes. Extreme stress may also cause memory impairment.

3Thus, while each person responds to stressors differently, it is wise in this hurried and often-frantic society to seek relaxation, not only for our emotional well-being, but also for our physical health. Meditation, time with friends, and exercise are great stress-relievers.

 

 Question 1..

 

 Question 2

 

 Question 3

 

 Question 4

 

 Question 5

 

 Self Check

Read the selection to determine the patterns of organization and the signals used to indicate the pattern.

Suicide is the taking of one's own life intentionally, and it has become a phenomenon of great concern in America. In 1997, suicide became the eighth leading cause of death in the United States. In fact, in 1997, over 30,000 deaths were attributed to suicide compared to 19,000 homicides or murders. Many people attempt suicide and fail; approximately a half-million Americans attempt suicide each year, but do not succeed. Those most likely to commit suicide in America are white men over the age of 65; however, of great concern is the fact that since 1980 the suicide rate of children between the ages of 10 and 14 has doubled.

 

 Question 1

 

 Question 2

 

Read the selection to determine the patterns of organization and the signals used to indicate the pattern.

The Atlantic shoreline is constantly changing and subject to powerful natural forces, such as hurricanes and severe winter storms. In addition to this natural evolution, the shoreline has been harmed by human exploitation. The building of resorts and beach homes alters the natural environment, narrowing the actual beach areas and eliminating the natural dunes, plants, and marshes. The first effect of rapid building and overdevelopment is that wide expanses of beach are eroded, leaving only narrow strips of sand and few sand dunes, ridges or barriers of sand. Unfortunately, when a hurricane or winter storm pounds the narrow, flat sandy beach, more damage is done. The second effect of beach overdevelopment is a loss of natural vegetation. This vegetation also serves to hold the sand, which in turn blocks and absorbs the shock of heavy rains and winds. Although the storms will continue to change coastal environments, erosion can be lessened if people would build wisely, well away from the shore.

 

 Question 1

 

 Question 2

 

Read the selection to determine the patterns of organization and the signals used to indicate the pattern.

In order to survive, the Plains Indians drew upon all of their skills and intelligence to both hunt and make use of the buffalo. The Indians learned how to outwit the large, tough-skinned animals, by driving them over precipices where the animals would fall to their deaths. Once conquered, the buffalo provided hides that were used for clothing and moccasins, and when sewn together with the sinew, became the covering for teepees. The pelts of the buffalo necks were used to make shields and even the paunches, or bellies, became cooking vessels. The bones were used as tools and even the ribs became sleds. The bones and hair became toys and ornaments for headdresses and clothing. The bladders were used for medicine bags, and even the hooves and scrota became rattles and drums. Life during the often-harsh winters became bearable with the help of the buffalo.

 Question 1

 

Read the selection to determine the patterns of organization and the signals used to indicate the pattern.

1I grew up in the 1950s in the rural South. My parents farmed, and my social network consisted of my cousins and the children of other farmers in the area. Every weekend we dressed up and went to town where we bought groceries and visited on the street corners. This weekly shopping trip allowed us to see how others lived and dressed and ate, those more affluent and more cosmopolitan. We peered into store windows where sophisticated mannequins wore beaded gowns. We passed restaurants where tables were covered with white linen cloths and napkins. We were mesmerized by the beautiful and fine things that we saw; we stared and giggled. This world seemed inaccessible to me at that time, for as Saturday afternoon came to an end, we piled into our Chevrolet and headed back to the farm. Dinner out for us was a potluck supper in the church basement.

2Eventually, however, I did leave the farm and move to the city. Now I find myself shopping too much, never in awe of merchandise beautifully displayed; it has become too commonplace. I no longer linger in front of store windows; there are too many windows, and I have become numbed by them. Restaurants, too, are not the treat they once were; I have eaten too many expensive meals, had too many glasses of wine. The streets are not meeting places for me as they were before. I see too many strangers rushing by quickly with shopping bags and briefcases. The city has dangers now, too. I may get attacked; my purse may be ripped from my hands. The city, that once-magical place, has lost its hold on me.

 

 Question 1

 

 Question 2

 

Read each passage to determine the patterns of organization and signals used. Select your response from the list of patterns of organization following the passage.

1Thomas Jefferson, America's third president, authored many important works, including The Declaration of Independence and Virginia's Statute for Religious Freedom. This statesman lived on his Virginia plantation, Monticello, and after the American Revolution, life on the plantation was intellectually and socially stimulating. There were hunts, feasts, and grand parties. European and American guests of Jefferson were fascinated by his knowledge and charm. He was a great thinker, an enlightened man.

2However, this great representative of the Enlightenment Era owned slaves. He hoped to see slavery abolished, but he knew that the economic prosperity of his own aristocratic lifestyle and the economic well-being of the American South rested on slavery. Slaves were needed to harvest tobacco and cotton from Virginia to the Mississippi River. In fact, "surplus" slaves from Virginia were often sold to neighboring Southern states; they became a major export of his own state.

3This great man who had understood the need to break from England's tyranny could not lead the rally to help the very slaves he himself owned. He chose to believe that the next generation of Americans would rise to this challenge and eliminate the curse of slavery from this new country, dedicated to the ideals of independence that he himself had written. Despite his professed hatred of slavery and his denouncement of the practice in Notes on the State of Virginia, he decided that freeing slaves was a responsibility better left to someone else.

 

 Question 1

 

 Question 2

 

 Question 3

 

 Question 4

 

Self Check

Read each passage to determine the patterns of organization and signals used. Select your response from the list of patterns of organization following the passage.

1Amerians always seem to want to be the best at whatever they do. They want to have the biggest house on the block, the most expensive car. American cities want to boast about having the tallest building, the most parks. Bloomington, Minnesota has something to boast about: it has the largest indoor shopping mall and entertainment center in America.

2What makes this 4.2 million-square-foot mall unique other than its size? First, it houses Bloomingdale's, Nordstrom, Macy's, Sears, and over 520 specialty stores. Many of these shops cater to special clientele needs. For example, you can stuff your own bear at Basic Brown Bear Factory, and there are stores just for dog, cat, and horse lovers. Some stores feature items from around the world; others feature locally made items. Also, for those who love clothes, clothing purchases are tax-free. Next, if you don't like shopping, you can have fun at the seven-acre amusement center, which is surrounded by all those stores. It is complete with a roller coaster, which soars through the mall under the domed roof. Under the mall, there is a huge aquarium that allows you to see sharks and fish as you relax on a moving walkway. In addition, there is a NASCAR Silicon Motor Speedway which allows you to simulate racing at 200 mph. Finally, after all this excitement, you can eat at the many restaurants, take in a movie, or get a massage.

3

Most malls don't fit this description; they just aren't this large. Unlike The Mall of America, they don't seem so ready to cater to all needs--physical, recreational, social, and emotional--in climate-controlled comfort. Whereas most shoppers head home after a day at their local mall, hotels surround the Mall of America, and tourists stay for days. Shuttle buses leave them and take the weary back to rest. Eventually, they depart for home and the reality of their hometown, not-so-huge malls

 

 Question 1

 

 Question 2

 

 Question 3

 

 Question 4

  

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